Historical Context for the Seventh Issue of The Dawn of Tomorrow

<em>The Dawn of Tomorrow</em>, 1923-08-25, vol. 1, no. 7

Page One

ANP: The Associated Negro Press was the first national news service for African Americans, distributing biweekly packets of important news to black newspapers across Canada and the United States.

Booker T Washington: Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856-1915), founder of the Tuskegee Institute, advocated for rural industrial education and was celebrated as a leader in African-American education.

Greenwood is a small city in Greenwood County, South Carolina, United States.

Marcus Garvey: Marcus Garvey, Jr., (1887-1940) was the pioneer of Garveyism and founder of the United Negro Improvement Association. He advocated for a Pan- African movement, for all blacks to adhere to their cultural roots and inspired the “Back to Africa” movement.

Dr. Robert R Morton: Robert Russa Morton (1867 –1940) was named principal of Tuskegee Institute on 1915, after the death of its founder, Dr. Booker T. Washington. Morton expanded upon Washington’s philosophy and pursued various strategies in implementing infrastructure for African-American higher education.

Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute: Founded by Booker T. Washington in Alabama, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute opened in 1881 and gained recognition for its exemplary training of African-Americans in the industrial trade.

UNIA: United Negro Improvement Association was a black nationalist organization founded by Marcus Garvey in 1914 and gained prominence in the 1920s.

Page Two

Warren Harding: Warren Gamaliel Harding, the 29th President of the United States, received a list of suggestions on improving race relations from Tuskegee principal Robert Morton. Harding and Morton worked together on resolving these issues in 1921 and 1922.

Page Three

Garvey Case: Marcus Garvey, founder of the UNIA, was convicted on charges of mail fraud when the FBI began an investigation into the activities of UNIA and its founder. The FBI was not fond of Garvey and was aiming at ways to limit his influence and sentenced Garvey to five years imprisonment, later commuted by President Coolidge.

Garvey’s Bail Refusal: After Garvey’s sentencing on the 21st of June 1923, Garvey’s appeal for bail was rejected forcing him to spend three months incarcerated at the Tombs Prison in New York before finally being released on bail and continued to advocate his innocence and work for the UNIA.

Slave Trade: Transatlantic trading pattern, established in the 15th century in which slaves were taken from Africa, brought to work in the New World and produced raw materials for Europeans to trade back to African tradesmen.

Page Four

AME Church: The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E.

Church, is a predominantly based in the United States and Canada.

Harrow: Harrow is a community located in the town of Essex, Essex County, Ontario, Canada.

Ingersoll: Ingersoll is a town in Oxford County on the Thames River in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

South Woodslee: A small community in Lakeshore, Ontario.